AM Processes

Three processes will be studied in ConstructAdd, targeting the AEC and automotive industries: Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), Laser directed energy deposition (LDED), and Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM).


Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an AM method in which the material within a pre-placed powder bed is selectively melt using thermal energy from a laser beam. A component is formed as several thin layers fuse together in a micro-welding process, which makes the method suitable for small parts with complex geometries. The possibility of re-use of any unused powder makes the process cost-efficient and sustainable.


Laser directed energy deposition (LDED) is a DED method which features metallic powder being fed directly into the focal point of a laser beam, generating a molten pool on the previously deposited layer, where it solidifies. It is suitable for high complexity parts and can be addressed for the repairing of damaged components.


Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a directed energy deposition (DED) technique based on the combination of electric arc welding tools used as a heat source and a wire employed as a feedstock material. The constructed component will be entirely formed from the deposited weld material. WAAM is suitable for medium to large scale parts with low to medium geometric complexity